I’m divorced from my one marriage in the Catholic Church, but I never got an annulment. I was told since my marriage wasn’t annulled that I could not receive the sacraments. Is that true?

Being divorced does not prevent you from receiving the sacraments. Neither does the fact that your prior marriage has not been annulled.

What would keep you from the sacraments is having attempted a new marriage without the former one being annulled. Any new marriage you may have attempted without an annulment will be presumed invalid, meaning that if you are living a conjugal life with a new partner you are presumed to be in a state of grave sin. It would be that sin, not being divorced without an annulment, that would keep you from receiving Communion.

If you have not attempted a new marriage since your previous one, or if you are living chastely until your current marital situation is rectified, then you can receive the sacraments.